General Motors and Ford have been designated as the top two automakers in a study that takes into consideration vehicle composition.

Published by American University’s Kogod School of Business, the 2016 Kogod Made in America Auto Index ranked the trio of the Buick Enclave, Chevrolet Traverse and GMC Acadia at the top of its list with a high score of 90. The Ford F-150 pickup truck placed second with a score of 85.

The Kogod index uses seven criteria when calculating a total score for a vehicle, awarding points for profit margin, labor, research and development, assembly, and the origin of the engine, transmission, body, chassis and electrical components.

The authors maintain that the Kogod method offers consumers “a more accurate view of their vehicle’s composition” compared to information provided by manufacturers on window stickers.

The study concludes that foreign companies operating manufacturing facilities in the U.S. generally use fewer locally-produced parts. As result, the highest proportion of profits are said to be directed to the vehicle’s country of origin.